Shulman GI, Rothman DL, Jue T, Stein P, DeFronzo RA, Shulman RG: Quantitation of muscle glycogen synthesis in normal subjects and subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. N Engl J Med. 1990, 322: 223-228.
Reaven GM: Pathophysiology of insulin resistance in human disease. Physiol Rev. 1995, 75: 473-486.
Vaag A, Henriksen JE, Beck-Nielsen H: Decreased insulin activation of glycogen synthase in skeletal muscles in young nonobese Caucasian first-degree relatives of patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Clin Invest. 1992, 89: 782-788.
Cohen PT: Protein phosphatase 1--targeted in many directions. J Cell Sci. 2002, 115: 241-256.
Freymond D, Bogardus C, Okubo M, Stone K, Mott D: Impaired insulin-stimulated muscle glycogen synthase activation in vivo in man is related to low fasting glycogen synthase phosphatase activity. J Clin Invest. 1988, 82: 1503-1509.
Kida Y, Esposito-Del Puente A, Bogardus C, Mott DM: Insulin resistance is associated with reduced fasting and insulin-stimulated glycogen synthase phosphatase activity in human skeletal muscle. J Clin Invest. 1990, 85: 476-481.
Chen YH, Hansen L, Chen MX, Bjorbaek C, Vestergaard H, Hansen T, Cohen PT, Pedersen O: Sequence of the human glycogen-associated regulatory subunit of type 1 protein phosphatase and analysis of its coding region and mRNA level in muscle from patients with NIDDM. Diabetes. 1994, 43: 1234-1241.
Cohen P: The structure and regulation of protein phosphatases. Annu Rev Biochem. 1989, 58: 453-508. 10.1146/annurev.bi.58.070189.002321.
Ragolia L, Begum N: The effect of modulating the glycogen-associated regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase-1 on insulin action in rat skeletal muscle cells. Endocrinology. 1997, 138: 2398-2404. 10.1210/en.138.6.2398.
Xia J, Scherer SW, Cohen PT, Majer M, Xi T, Norman RA, Knowler WC, Bogardus C, Prochazka M: A common variant in PPP1R3 associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 1998, 47: 1519-1524.
Savage DB, Agostini M, Barroso I, Gurnell M, Luan J, Meirhaeghe A, Harding AH, Ihrke G, Rajanayagam O, Soos MA, George S, Berger D, Thomas EL, Bell JD, Meeran K, Ross RJ, Vidal-Puig A, Wareham NJ, O'Rahilly S, Chatterjee VK, Schafer AJ: Digenic inheritance of severe insulin resistance in a human pedigree. Nat Genet. 2002, 31: 379-384.
Maegawa H, Shi K, Hidaka H, Iwai N, Nishio Y, Egawa K, Kojima H, Haneda M, Yasuda H, Nakamura Y, Kinoshita M, Kikkawa R, Kashiwagi A: The 3'-untranslated region polymorphism of the gene for skeletal muscle-specific glycogen-targeting subunit of protein phosphatase 1 in the type 2 diabetic Japanese population. Diabetes. 1999, 48: 1469-1472.
Rasmussen SK, Hansen L, Frevert EU, Cohen PT, Kahn BB, Pedersen O: Adenovirus-mediated expression of a naturally occurring Asp905Tyr variant of the glycogen-associated regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase-1 in L6 myotubes. Diabetologia. 2000, 43: 718-722. 10.1007/s001250051369.
Hegele RA, Harris SB, Zinman B, Wang J, Cao H, Hanley AJ, Tsui LC, Scherer SW: Variation in the AU(AT)-rich element within the 3'-untranslated region of PPP1R3 is associated with variation in plasma glucose in aboriginal Canadians. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998, 83: 3980-3983. 10.1210/jc.83.11.3980.
Hansen L, Reneland R, Berglund L, Rasmussen SK, Hansen T, Lithell H, Pedersen O: Polymorphism in the glycogen-associated regulatory subunit of type 1 protein phosphatase (PPP1R3) gene and insulin sensitivity. Diabetes. 2000, 49: 298-301.
Hansen L, Hansen T, Vestergaard H, Bjorbaek C, Echwald SM, Clausen JO, Chen YH, Chen MX, Cohen PT, Pedersen O: A widespread amino acid polymorphism at codon 905 of the glycogen-associated regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase-1 is associated with insulin resistance and hypersecretion of insulin. Hum Mol Genet. 1995, 4: 1313-1320.
Shen GQ, Ikegami H, Kawaguchi Y, Fujisawa T, Hamada Y, Ueda H, Shintani M, Nojima K, Kawabata Y, Yamada K, Babaya N, Ogihara T: Asp905Tyr polymorphism of the gene for the skeletal muscle-specific glycogen-targeting subunit of protein phosphatase 1 in NIDDM. Diabetes Care. 1998, 21: 1086-1089.
Ross J: mRNA stability in mammalian cells. Microbiol Rev. 1995, 59: 423-450.
Shaw G, Kamen R: A conserved AU sequence from the 3' untranslated region of GM-CSF mRNA mediates selective mRNA degradation. Cell. 1986, 46: 659-667.
Xia J, Bogardus C, Prochazka M: A type 2 diabetes-associated polymorphic ARE motif affecting expression of PPP1R3 is involved in RNA-protein interactions. Mol Genet Metab. 1999, 68: 48-55. 10.1006/mgme.1999.2884.
Delibegovic M, Armstrong CG, Dobbie L, Watt PW, Smith AJ, Cohen PT: Disruption of the Striated Muscle Glycogen Targeting Subunit PPP1R3A of Protein Phosphatase 1 Leads to Increased Weight Gain, Fat Deposition, and Development of Insulin Resistance. Diabetes. 2003, 52: 596-604.
Morris AD, Boyle DI, MacAlpine R, Emslie-Smith A, Jung RT, Newton RW, MacDonald TM: The diabetes audit and research in Tayside Scotland (DARTS) study: electronic record linkage to create a diabetes register. DARTS/MEMO Collaboration. Bmj. 1997, 315: 524-528.
UK Prospective Diabetes Study. IV. Characteristics of newly presenting type 2 diabetic patients: male preponderance and obesity at different ages. Multi-center Study. Diabet Med. 1988, 5: 154-159.
Krotkiewski M, Bjorntorp P, Sjostrom L, Smith U: Impact of obesity on metabolism in men and women. Importance of regional adipose tissue distribution. J Clin Invest. 1983, 72: 1150-1162.
Yki-Jarvinen H: Sex and insulin sensitivity. Metabolism. 1984, 33: 1011-1015.
Fernandez-Real JM, Casamitjana R, Ricart-Engel W: Leptin is involved in gender-related differences in insulin sensitivity. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1998, 49: 505-511. 10.1046/j.1365-2265.1998.00566.x.
Frias JP, Macaraeg GB, Ofrecio J, Yu JG, Olefsky JM, Kruszynska YT: Decreased susceptibility to fatty acid-induced peripheral tissue insulin resistance in women. Diabetes. 2001, 50: 1344-1350.
Hevener A, Reichart D, Janez A, Olefsky J: Female rats do not exhibit free fatty acid-induced insulin resistance. Diabetes. 2002, 51: 1907-1912.
Wang G, Qian R, Li Q, Niu T, Chen C, Xu X: The association between PPP1R3 gene polymorphisms and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Chin Med J (Engl). 2001, 114: 1258-1262.