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Table 6 Epistatic effects and interacting effects of epistatic QTL × environment of identified QTL for traits related to flag leaf morphology of main shoots in the RIL population

From: Genetic dissection of flag leaf morphology in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under diverse water regimes

Trait QTL i Flanking marker Position(cM) QTL j Flanking marker Position (cM) Environ. AA h 2(AA)% AAE h 2(AAE)%
FLL Qfll.acs–1A.1 Xmag1022–Xwmc24 0 Qfll.acs–1A.2 Xwmc93–Xcfd25 0 E3 0.55*** 8.25 –0.25** 3.50
  Qfll.acs–1B.1 Xwmc694–Xwmc156 0 Qfll.acs–2D.1 Xmag1280–Xgwm157 2 E1 –0.37*** 2.43   
  Qfll.acs–1B.3 Xwmc830–Xwmc44 2 Qfll.acs–3B.2 Xgwm566–Xwmc231 2 E3 –0.30*** 2.51   
  Qfll.acs–1D Xbarc169–Xwmc216 2 Qfll.acs–7A Xwmc596–Xgwm260 2 E4 0.34*** 2.06 –0.39*** 2.94
  Qfll.acs–2A.1 Xwmc474–Xwmc296 4 Qfll.acs–4D.4 Xwmc399–Xwmc622 2 E3 0.35*** 3.43   
  Qfll.acs–2A.2 Xgwm122–Xmag2150 0 Qfll.acs–4A.3 Xwmc757–Xgwm613 0 E4 –0.42*** 3.27 0.33*** 4.05
  Qfll.acs–2B.2 Xbarc167–Xmag3698 0 Qfll.acs–6B.2 Xbarc24–Xpsp3131 4 E3 0.41*** 4.67 –0.32*** 4.08
  Qfll.acs–2D.1 Xmag1280–Xgwm157 2 Qfll.acs–3A.4 Xwmc695–Xgwm162 0 E1 –0.40*** 2.93 –0.36*** 2.42
  Qfll.acs–3A.3 Xwmc11–Xgwm391 6 Qfll.acs–5A.4 Xgwm186–Xcfa2185 0 E4 –0.49*** 4.35 –0.50*** 5.11
  Qfll.acs–3B.1 Xwmc236–Xmag3356 0 Qfll.acs–4A.4 Xgwm397–Xgwm613 0 E2 –0.36*** 2.78   
  Qfll.acs–4A.2 Xgwm160–Xwmc497 4 Qfll.acs–7B Xwmc526–Xwmc232 2 E1 –0.47*** 3.95 –0.41*** 3.86
  Qfll.acs–4B Xbarc1133–Xbarc90 4 Qfll.acs–1A.3 Xgwm135–Xwmc304 0 E4 –0.45*** 3.73 0.31*** 3.42
  Qfll.acs–4D.2 Xwmc489–Xgdm61 0 Qfll.acs–1A.4 Xwmc20–Xbarc240 2 E1 0.36*** 3.61 –0.29*** 4.73
        E3 0.42*** 4.71   
  Qfll.acs–4D.3 Xwmc473–Xwmc489 0 Qfll.acs–2A.3 Xgwm558–Xbarc208 8 E4 0.35*** 2.21   
  Qfll.acs–6A.1 Xwmc553–Xwmc179 0 Qfll.acs–6A.2 Xbarc113–Xwmc621 0 E4 0.40*** 2.91   
FLW Qflw.acs–1A.1 Xgwm33–Xwmc818 0 Qflw.acs–1A.2 Xwmc611–Xwmc20 12 E3 0.03*** 2.01 0.02*** 3.41
  Qflw.acs–1B Xbarc131–Xgwm413 2 Qflw.acs–3B.1 Xgwm108–Xpsp3035 0 E3 –0.03*** 2.12 –0.03*** 2.35
  Qflw.acs–1D Xwmc429–Xwmc339 4 Qflw.acs–7A.2 Xksum153–Xwmc607 6 E2 –0.02*** 2.36   
  Qflw.acs–2A.3 Xgwm512–Xgwm30 0 Qflw.acs–5B.3 Xmag959–Xwmc740 0 E4 0.02*** 2.05 –0.02*** 2.28
  Qflw.acs–3A.3 Xwmc505–Xwmc343 0 Qflw.acs–2D Xwmc112–Xgwm484 0 E4 0.02*** 2.27   
  Qflw.acs–3A.4 Xwmc50–Xksum222 6 Qflw.acs–3B.2 Xwmc366–Xgdm64 0 E2 0.03*** 3.05   
  Qflw.acs–4A Xgwm613–Xmag3733 10 Qflw.acs–7D Xgdm67–Xmag892 0 E2 0.02*** 2.36 –0.02*** 2.50
  Qflw.acs–5A.1 Xwmc492–Xgwm96 0 Qflw.acs–5B.3 Xmag959–Xwmc740 2 E1 0.02*** 2.05 0.01*** 2.23
FLWR Qflwr.acs–1A.1 Xcfa2513–Xksum104 0 Qflwr.acs–4D Xwmc399–Xwmc622 0 E1 0.20*** 2.18 0.16** 2.84
  Qflwr.acs–1A.2 Xgdm36–Xbarc83 0 Qflwr.acs–7D Xgwm121–Xgdm67 0 E2 0.29*** 4.18 –0.31*** 4.62
  Qflwr.acs–1B.2 Xbarc61–Xwmc134 10 Qflwr.acs–2D.2 Xmag1280–Xgwm157 0 E1 –0.29*** 4.56   
  Qflwr.acs–2B Xwmc272–Xgwm630 0 Qflwr.acs–4B.2 Xbarc90–Xgwm540 2 E3 –0.23*** 2.86 –0.19*** 2.82
  Qflwr.acs–2D.1 Xwmc243–Xcfd239 0 Qflwr.acs–5D Xcfd183–Xwmc212 2 E2 –0.38*** 7.28 –0.30*** 4.99
  Qflwr.acs–3A.3 Xwmc264–Xgwm494 0 Qflwr.acs–4A.2 Xgwm613–Xmag3733 6 E1 0.39*** 7.67   
        E2 0.29*** 4.36   
  Qflwr.acs–3B.1 Xbarc173–Xgwm284 0 Qflwr.acs–1B.3 Xgwm413–Xwmc419 12 E3 0.39*** 5.93 –0.40*** 5.05
  Qflwr.acs–3B.2 Xgdm64–Xwmc51 0 Qflwr.acs–3A.4 Xgwm67–Xwmc264 2 E4 0.21*** 2.45 –0.23*** 2.64
  Qflwr.acs–4A.1 Xwmc757–Xgwm610 2 Qflwr.acs–4A.3 Xgwm397–Xgwm613 0 E4 –0.26*** 3.73 –0.22*** 3.20
  Qflwr.acs–4B.1 Xksum244–Xmag2055 2 Qflwr.acs–5B Xcfd10–Xbarc59 2 E4 –0.23*** 2.73 0.18** 3.31
  Qflwr.acs–6A.2 Xgwm169–Xwmc580 2 Qflwr.acs–7B Xbarc315–Xwmc311 2 E4 0.21*** 2.29   
  Qflwr.acs–6B.1 Xwmc539–Xmag590 0 Qflwr.acs–6B.2 Xbarc79–Xgwm626 0 E2 0.31*** 4.95 –0.35*** 4.27
FLA Qfla.acs–1A.1 Xwmc104–Xcfa2219 14 Qfla.acs–1D Xcfd72–Xwmc429 0 E2 0.62*** 3.08 –0.35*** 1.93
  Qfla.acs–2A.1 Xwmc474–Xwmc296 2 Qfla.acs–2B.2 Xgwm55–Xbarc128 0 E1 –1.39*** 2.61 0.66*** 1.18
  Qfla.acs–2A.2 Xgwm249–Xcfa2263 0 Qfla.acs–4D.3 Xgdm61–Xwmc457 18 E3 –0.74*** 2.33 –0.68*** 2.51
  Qfla.acs–2B.1 Xbarc1072–Xwmc272 0 Qfla.acs–6A.2 Xbarc113–Xwmc621 0 E3 1.16*** 5.75 –0.94*** 6.02
  Qfla.acs–3D Xwmc43–Xwmc675 16 Qfla.acs–5D Xcfd183–Xwmc212 4 E3 0.77*** 3.56 –0.73*** 3.34
  Qfla.acs–4A Xmag3733–Xwmc707 0 Qfla.acs–7D Xgdm67–Xmag892 0 E2 0.57*** 2.58 –0.62*** 2.85
  Qflaacs–5A Xwmc205–Xgwm154 4 Qfla.acs–1A.2 Xgwm135–Xwmc304 0 E4 –0.87*** 3.27   
BAFL Qbafl.acs–1D Xbarc169–Xwmc216 4 Qbafl.acs–7A.1 Xwmc596–Xgwm260 0 E3 1.79*** 2.03 –1.85*** 2.18
        E4 2.72*** 4.72 –1.84*** 4.31
  Qbafl.acs–2B.2 Xbarc1155–Xcfd73 4 Qbafl.acs–3B.2 Xbarc68–Xgwm285 0 E1 1.94*** 2.61 –1.75*** 2.48
  Qbafl.acs–3A.1 Xwmc695–Xgwm162 0 Qbafl.acs–2B.3 Xgwm132–Xcfa2278 0 E2 –2.64*** 2.58   
  Qbafl.acs–3B.1 Xbarc1077–Xwmc366 2 Qbafl.acs–7A.2 Xgwm282–Xmag828 4 E2 –2.35*** 2.05 –1.67*** 2.06
  Qbafl.acs–4A.1 Xwmc420–Xgwm601 2 Qbafl.acs–4A.2 Xgwm610–Xgwm397 2 E4 –1.85*** 2.19 –1.72*** 2.34
  Qbafl.acs–4B.1 Xksum238–Xcfd39 0 Qbafl.acs–4D.2 Xksum180–Xwmc48 10 E1 –1.93*** 2.57   
  Qbafl.acs–4B.2 Xbarc292–Xbarc1133 0 Qbafl.acs–1A Xbarc197–Xcfa2513 0 E4 –2.38*** 3.62 –1.83*** 4.29
  Qbafl.acs–5A Xwmc630–Xmag4263 2 Qbafl.acs–3B.3 Xwmc291–Xgwm108 6 E3 2.37*** 5.72 –1.94*** 4.32
  Qbafl.acs–6A Xgwm427–Xwmc642 0 Qbafl.acs–3A.2 Xwmc532–Xgwm674 14 E1 1.83*** 2.32   
  1. FLL flag leaf length, FLW flag leaf width, FLWR flag leaf length to width ratio, FLA flag leaf area, BAFL basal angle of flag leaf. E1 to E4 represent the location at Yongdeng (103°18’ E, 36°42’ N), Gansu, China, in 2011and 2012, at Anning (103°51’ E, 36°04’ N), Gansu, China, in 2012, and at Yuzhong (104°07’ E, 35°51’ N), Gansu, China, in 2013, respectively. QTL i and QTL j are a pair of QTL detected by two–dimensional searching. AA: the direction of the epistatic effect; a positive value means that the parent–type effect is greater than the recombinant–type effect and a negative value means that the parent–type effect is less than the recombinant–type effect. h 2(AA) (%) : the phenotypic variance explained by epistatic QTL. AAE, a positive value indicates AAE effect having an increasing effect on the trait value in WW conditions and a negative value means AAE effect having a decreasing effect on the trait value in DS conditions. h 2(AAE) (%):the phenotypic variance explained by AAE effect. **P ≤0.005, ***P ≤0.001