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Table 3 Description of traits

From: Differentially penalized regression to predict agronomic traits from metabolites and markers in wheat

Heading date May-June 1 time of flowering in days, where number 1 is the 1th of May
Plant height cm 2 height of the plants in cm
Yield kg/plot 3 weight of the seed harvested from a plot
Thousand kernel weight g/1000kernel 4 weight of 1000 kernels (Hungarian standard MSZ 6367/4-86 (1986))
Protein content % 5 protein content of the seed estimated by FOSS Tecator 1241, NIR method (ICC Standard No. 202, 159)
Gluten content % 6 gluten content of the seed estimated by FOSS Tecator 1241, NIR method (ICC Standard No. 202, 159)
Water absorption % 7 water absorption of the flour estimated by FOSS Tecator 1241, NIR method (ICC Standard No. 202, 159)
Starch content % 8 starch content of the seed estimated by FOSS Tecator 1241, NIR method (ICC Standard No. 202, 159)
Moisture content % 9 moisture content of the seed estimated by FOSS Tecator 1241, NIR imethod (ICC Standard No. 202, 159)
Zeleny sedimentation1 ml 10 Zeleny sedimentation estimated by FOSS Tecator 1241, NIR method (ICC Standard No. 202, 159)
Hardness Index   11 hardness of the kernels estimated by FOSS Tecator 1241, NIR method (ICC Standard No. 202, 159)
Test weight kg/100litre 12 weight of 100 litres of seed measured with FOSS Tecator 1241
Zeleny sedimentation2 ml 13 sedimentation of the flour in lactic acid solution as an estimation of the expected bread volume (ICC Standard No. 116/1)
Protein content1 % flour 14 protein content of the flour measured as n x 5.7 by the Kjeldahl chemical method (ICC105/2)
Protein content2 % wholemeal 15 protein content of the wholemeal measured as N x 5.7 by the Kjedahl chemical method (ICC105/2)
Kernel weight mg 16 average weight of a kernel measured by Perten SKCS instrument (AACC Method 55–31)
Kernel diameter mm 17 average diameter of the kernels measured by Perten SKCS instrument (AACC Method 55–31)
Hardness Index   18 average hardness of the seed measured by Perten SKCS instrument (AACC Method 55–31), expressed as an index on a 0–100 scale based on the energy which is required for breakage
Moisture content % 19 average moisture of the seed measured by Perten SKCS instrument (AACC Method 55–31) based on conductance
Gluten content % 20 concentration of the gluten protein network formed in the dough determined by washing the starch out of the dough with water during continuous mechanical mixing (ICC137/1)
Gluten Index   21 The gluten index (GI), a measure of dough strength, determined as the gluten remaining on a sieve (g)*100/total gluten (g) (ICC 155) after centrifugation.
Falling Number s 22 estimate of the α-amylase activity in the flour determined by measuring the falling time of the mixer in the viscoscous solution of flour in a hot water bath. This value relates to the level of α-amylase present as a result of pre-harvest sprouting or pre-maturity amylase production (ICC107/1)
Flour yield % 23 quantity of white flour produced by milling expressed as a % of the seed weight
Bran yield % 24 quantity of bran produced by milling as a % of the seed weight