Bm-ASH genes enhance ASH2P Promoter activity via E-boxes. ASH2P, the promoter segment of Bm-ASH2; 194Em, ASH2P mutated in the E-box 188–194 bp upstream from the start codon; 797Em, ASH2P mutated in the E-box 791–797 bp upstream from the start codon; 194&797Em, ASH2P mutated in both of the E-boxes. Forks show the mutated E-box site (A). B, C, D and E are the results co-transfected of promoters and da with ASH1, ASH2, ASH3 and ase, respectively. E-boxes mutation significantly reduced the promoter activity in B, C and D (p < 0.01), but had no effect in E (p > 0.05).