Spatial distributions of the O1, O2 and O3 clades using haplogroup frequency and associated STR diversity (rho statistic). Maps are based on data from Additional file 1: Tables S1 and S2 and from literature data [12, 27, 30, 36, 39, 40, 62]. Panels are labeled according to ISOGG2011 [8, 43, 44]. Arrows symbolize dispersals and gene flow, and stages (B, C and D) are according to Karafet et al.  (see Discussion section). The age at the beginning of arrows represents the likely time of origin of the haplogroup as estimated from its STR diversity (Table 2 and Additional file 1: Table S3), and arrow colors represent time of dispersal (red for Paleolithic, blue for Neolithic/Austronesian expansion and yellow for contemporary historical times).