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Table 2 Real data application. GxE interaction analysis in GINIplus between a GRS of three GSTP1 & TNF SNPs and air pollution exposure (NO2) with parents reported physician-diagnosed asthma from birth to 7–8 years of age

From: Comparison of weighting approaches for genetic risk scores in gene-environment interaction studies

   Weights for GRS GRSxE interaction
  N GSTP1 rs1138272 GSTP1 rs1695 TNF rs1800629 ORa p-value
GRS with weights from pooled marginal genetic effectsb 593 ln(1.49) ≈ 0.40 ln(0.91) ≈ −0.09 ln(1.04) ≈ 0.04 16.31 0.004
GRS-marginal-internalc 593 0.69 −0.09 0.00 8.83 0.004
GRS-interaction-training (1:1)d,e 296 0.63 0.00 0.00 9.71 0.028
GRS-interaction-training (1:2)d,f 395 0.64 0.00 0.00 9.24 0.014
GRS-interaction-training (1:3)d,g 444 0.85 0.00 0.00 7.34 0.007
  1. aOR and p-values for the interaction effects. Adjusted for study, city, intervention, infant sex, maternal age at birth, maternal smoking during pregnancy, environmental tobacco smoke in the home, and parental atopy. bPooled data from BAMSE, CAPPS, GINIplus, LISAplus, SAGE and PIAMA; ln(ORs) as published in MacIntyre et al. (2014) were used as weights (compare Table 1). cestimated in GINIplus within this publication, estimates from the elastic net regression (α = 0.5) for the marginal genetic effects in GINIplus. dWeights from the interaction term itself when using parts of the data to estimate the weights and the remaining data to determine the GRS. eBalance training vs. test data 1:1. fBalance training vs. test data 1:2. gBalance training vs. test data 1:3