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Table 1 Sperm morphology in fresh ejaculates of three affected AI bulls

From: A frameshift mutation in ARMC3 is associated with a tail stump sperm defect in Swedish Red (Bos taurus) cattle

Phenotype Bull 1 Bull 2 Bull 3
Tail morphology Normal tails 0 % 0 % 0 %
Absent tails 2 % 3 % 4 %
Rudimentary tails 45 % 63 % 28 %
Short straight tails 27 % 15 % 29 %
Folded or coiled short tails 26 % 19 % 39 %
Head morphology Normal heads 42 % 53 % 38 %
Abnormal heads 58 % 47 % 62 %