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Table 1 Formula for calculating three estimators (FGRM, FHOM and FUNI) for each genotype (homozygous for reference allele; heterozygous for reference and non-reference allele; homozygous for non-reference allele)

From: Estimation of inbreeding using pedigree, 50k SNP chip genotypes and full sequence data in three cattle breeds

  FGRM FHOM FUNI
x i  = 0 \( {\mathrm{F}}_{\mathrm{GRM}}=\frac{3{p}_i-1}{1-{p}_i} \) FHOM = 1 \( {\mathrm{F}}_{\mathrm{UNI}}=\frac{p_i}{1-{p}_i} \)
x i  = 1 \( {\mathrm{F}}_{\mathrm{GRM}}=\frac{6{p_i}^2-6{p}_i+1}{2{p}_i\left(1-{p}_i\right)} \) \( {\mathrm{F}}_{\mathrm{HOM}}=1-\frac{1}{2{p}_i\left(1-{p}_i\right)} \) FUNI = −1
x i  = 2 \( {\mathrm{F}}_{\mathrm{GRM}}=\frac{2-3{p}_i}{p_i} \) FHOM = 1 \( {\mathrm{F}}_{\mathrm{UNI}}=\frac{1-{p}_i}{p_i} \)
  1. x i is the number of reference allele