Population pairwise FSTs between d-loop sequences from eight Neolithic groups of ancient domesticated cattle. Coloured rings surround geographical groups. Grey and white dots within the circles represent geographical location of archaeological sites. White dots stand for the oldest Neolithic samples per group, grey dots for Middle/Late Neolithic samples. Numbers within dots represent the number of d-loop sequences per site. Orange: Central/Western Europe 5,400-4,400 BCE, blue: Southern France 5,500-4,500 BCE, green: Southeastern Central Europe 5,100-4,000 BCE, yellow: Italy 6,000-5,500 BCE, purple: Southeastern Europe 6,200-5,500 BCE and 5,500-5,000 BCE, red: Western Anatolia 6,400-5,700 BCE, and grey: Iran 7,000-5,000 BCE. Numbers on the lines between coloured circles are population pairwise FSTs. Solid lines stand for significant FSTs at the 0.05 level, dashed lines stand for significant FSTs at the 0.1 level. Grey and white colours of squares on the lines encode which chronological groups per geographi groups are being compared.