The effects of TCA cycle metabolites and pyruvate on heat shock, mitochondrial unfolded protein response, and ER stress response. (A)
Phsp-60::GFP (*p < 0.05 vs. control). For panels A and B heat shock at 35°C for 2 hours was used as a positive control. For panels C and D 50 μg/ml ethidium bromide treatment for 2 days was used as a positive control (*p < 0.05 vs. control).