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Table 4 Test for deviations from HWE for each sex and trend tests between sexes and alleles in RtSB03 locus in wild populations. Shown are fixation indices (FIS) and significance levels for heterozygosity excess tests as estimated after 12000 randomisations in FSTAT (F) and after 1000 iterations per patches of the Markov chain algorithm in Genepop program (G). df = degrees of freedom.n = number of individuals

From: Disentangling genetic vs. environmental causes of sex determination in the common frog, Rana temporaria

    HWE deviation    Trend   
Population Group n FIS F G χ2 df p
Kilpisjärvi Total 34 -0.063    22.06 8 **
  Female 18 0.089      
  Male 16 -0.420 *** ***    
Kiruna Total 48 -0.101 *   14.40 10  
  Female 24 -0.138      
  Male 24 -0.071      
Ammarnäs Total 41 -0.196 ° * 37.74 4 ***
  Female 18 0.145      
  Male 23 -0.770 *** ***    
Grytan Total 40 0.407    23.63 7 **
  Female 18 0.533      
  Male 22 0.148      
Häggedal Total 38 0.241    13.33 8  
  Female 18 0.115      
  Male 20 0.337      
Tvedöra Total 37 0.223    8.47 10  
  Female 18 0.103      
  Male 19 0.361      
  1. ***p < 0.001, **p < 0.01, *p < 0.05, °p < 0.1