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Table 2 Sib-ship sex-ratios based on phenotypic sexing (gonadal inspection) of 2–6 months old froglets. "Intermediate" refers to gonadal phenotype bearing characteristics of both sexes. χ2 is the value of chi square statistics testing for deviations from 1:1 sex-ratio. Degree of freedom is 1 for all tests. % mortality refers to percentage of mortality in each family that occurred before sexing

From: Disentangling genetic vs. environmental causes of sex determination in the common frog, Rana temporaria

Sib-ship ID Total Females Males Intermediate % mortality Sex-ratio χ2 p
Helsinki 49 18 31 0 5.6 0.63 3.45  
Kil-1 28 3 25 0 10.0 0.89 17.28 ***
Kil-3 36 8 27 1 3.6 0.77 10.31 ***
Kil-4 23 0 23 0 1.8 1.00 23 ***
Kil-5 33 15 18 0 2.5 0.55 0.27  
Kil-6 31 22 9 0 8.9 0.29 5.45 *
Kil-7 43 12 31 0 6 0.72 8.39 ***
Kil-8 18 1 17 0 0 0.94 14.22 ***
  1. ***p < 0.001, *p < 0.05