Phylogenetic relationships among alleles estimated using statistical parsimony (SP). Pseudachorutinae n sp. (a) Sm8, (b) Sm2, (c) SmEF-1α; Acanthanura n. sp. (d) Uc180, (e) Uc3, (f) UcEF-1α. For each SP cladogram, circles represent unique alleles (labeled following Table 4). The size of each circle is proportional to the frequency of that allele across all populations. Relative frequencies of alleles in each population are indicated by pie charts (color-coded following Figure 1). Single black lines represent one mutational step, short crossbars represent inferred alleles that were not sampled or are extinct. Dashed lines identify connections that failed to satisfy the 95% confidence criterion by a single mutational step.