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Table 1 Expected covariances for X-linked traitsa

From: X chromosome effects and their interactions with mitochondrial effects

Relationship type Generalb,c Dosage compensation
Male-male P1σ2Xm 2P1σ2Xf
Female-female 2φσ2Xf 2φσ2Xf
Male-female (1/√2)P1σXmσXf P1σ2Xf
  1. aExpected additive genetic covariances due to the X chromosome without and with assumption of dosage compensation [4].
  2. bP1 and P2, the respective probabilities that one and two alleles are shared IBD.
  3. cφ, the autosomal (i.e., diploid) kinship coefficient = P1/4 + P2/2.