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Table 1 Segregation of plumage color and feather structure in the F2 from rusty plumage and curly feather quail lines

From: Two new plumage mutations in the Japanese quail: "curly" feather and "rusty" plumage

Phenotype Observed (n = 531) Expected under independent segregation
   And complete penetrance (λ = 0) And incomplete penetrance (0 < λ < 1)
Wild-type a = 326 9n/16 = 298.7 9n/16+3λn/16 = 315.6¥
Rusty b = 95 3n/16 = 99.6 3n/16+λn/16 = 105.2
Curly c = 79 3n/16 = 99.6 3n(1-λ)/16 = 82.7
Rusty and curly d = 31 n/16 = 33.2 n(1-λ)/16 = 27.6
Goodness of fit χ2s = 7.5£ χ2s = 1.9$
  1. ¥: calculated using 1-λ = 0.83
  2. £:0.10 > p > 0.05.
  3. $:0.5 > p > 0.1