Fluorescent in situ hybridization in metaphase I using 5S rDNA (red) and 18S rDNA (green) in nine representative species of Scarabaeinae that belong to three distinct tribes ([a-d] Phanaeini, [e-h] Canthonini, [i] Ateuchini). (a) Coprophanaeus ensifer, (b) C. cyanescens, (c) Diabroctis mimas, (d) Phanaeus splendidulus, (e) Canthon staigi, (f) Deltochilum calcaratum, (g) D. verruciferum, (h) D. elevatum and (i) Atheuchus sp. The arrows indicate the sex chromosome bivalents. Note the co-localization of the two gene clusters in (c) at two chromosomes. Bar = 5 μm.