IL-12p70 production based on anaemia severity and genotypes. (A) The association between circulating IL-12p40/p70 levels and anaemia severity in parasitaemic children with SMA (n = 95) and non-SMA (n = 95) was determined. Bar-charts represent the means, and whiskers show the standard error of mean (SEM). Statistical significance was determined at P ≤ 0.05 by independent groups t-test. Children with SMA had significantly lower circulating IL-12p40/p70 levels than the non-SMA group (P = 0.037). (B) Circulating IL-12p40/p70 levels in children (n = 190) with P. falciparum malaria were measured using the Human Cytokine 25-Plex Antibody Bead Kit and stratified according to genotype. Bar-charts represent the means, and the whiskers show the standard error of mean (SEM) for AA (n = 69) 2.625 ± 0.035, AC (n = 82) 2.576 ± 0.027, and CC (n = 39) 2.590 ± 0.030 genotypes. Differences were considered significant at P ≤ 0.05 (ANOVA). IL-12p40/p70 levels were not significantly different across the genotypic groups (P = 0.514).