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Table 2 Molecular age estimates of mtDNA haplogroups in Yami and Ivatan

From: Genetic affinities between the Yami tribe people of Orchid Island and the Philippine Islanders of the Batanes archipelago

  Soares Method Kivisild Method Soares Method Saillard Method
Haplogroup ρ method obtained from all coding region synonymous mutations (transitions and transversions) of all available complete sequences# ρ method obtained from all HVSI transitions between nps 16090 and 16365$
  n ρ σ Age of molecular variation (95% confidence interval) Age of molecular variation (± variance)   n ρ σ Age of molecular variation (95% confidence interval) Age of molecular variation (± variance)
B4a1a 27 1.63 0.55 12,831 (4,345; 21,317) 11,025 ± 3,720 Total 152 0.59 0.17 11,132 (4,764; 17,500) 11,906 ± 3,431
       Yami 12 0.08 0.08 1,447 (0; 4,284) 1,614 ± 1,614
       Ivatan 7 0.08 0.08 1,551 (0; 4,591) 1,614 ± 1,614
B4a1a4 2 1 1 7872 (NA) NA Total 18 0.14 0.14 2691 (NA) 2,825 ± 2,825
       Yami 12 NA& NA& NA& NA&
       Ivatan 2 NA NA NA NA
B4a2a 4 1.5 0.71 11,808 (853; 22,763) 10,146 ± 4,802 Total 64 0.76 0.48 14,362 (3,357; 32,080) 15,337 ± 9,686
       Yami 19 0.04 0.04 756 (0; 2,237) 807 ± 807
       Ivatan 1 NA NA NA NA
B4c1b2 8 2.63 1.04 20,703 (4,657; 36,750) 17,789 ± 7,034 Total 98 0.74 0.21 13,896 (5,970; 21,823) 14,933 ± 4,238
       Yami 8 0.04 0.04 720 (0; 2,131) 807 ± 807
       Ivatan 7 0.04 0.04 720 (0; 2,131) 807 ± 807
E1a1a 14 1.07 0.33 8,423 (3,331; 13,515) 7,237 ± 2,232 Total 136 0.42 0.12 7,900 (3,471; 12,328) 8,476 ± 2,422
       Ivatan 6 0.01 0.01 205 (0; 608) 202 ± 202
E2a 15 1.07 0.34 8,423 (3,177; 13,669) 7,237 ± 2,299 Total 20 0.65 0.32 12,251 (428; 24,074) 13,117 ± 6,458
       Ivatan 1 NA NA NA NA
E2b1 6 0.5 0.29 3,936 (0; 8,410) 3,382 ± 1,961 Total 44 0.16 0.12 2,998 (0; 7,353) 3,229 ± 2,422
       Yami 5 0.03 0.03 496 (0; 1,467) 605 ± 605
       Ivatan 1 NA NA NA NA
E2b2 2 NA NA NA NA Total 8 0.38 0.18 7,069 (535; 13,603) 7,668 ± 3,632
       Ivatan 7 0.14 0.14 2,689 (0; 7,960) 2,825 ± 2,825
F1a1d* 10 1.4 0.79 11,021 (0; 23,210) 9,469 ± 5,343 Total 40 0.33 0.17 6,127 (0; 12,258) 6,659 ± 3,431
       Yami 18 0.07 0.05 1,261 (0; 3,000) 1,413 ± 1,009
F1a3 7 0.86 0.35 6,770 (1,370; 12,170) 5,817 ± 2,367 Total 41 0.49 0.17 9,189 (3,076; 15,302) 9,888 ± 3,431
       Ivatan 3 NA NA NA NA
F1a4 5 2.4 1.02 18,893 (3,155; 34,631) 16,233 ± 6,899 Total 41 0.39 0.16 7,359 (1,445; 13,272) 7,870 ± 3,229
       Ivatan 9 0.03 0.03 654 (0; 1,936) 605 ± 605
M7b3 6 1.5 0.5 11,808 (4,093; 19,523) 10,146 ± 3,382 Total 108 0.61 0.28 11,467 (1,088; 21,846) 12,310 ± 5,650
       Yami 8 0.01 0.01 271 (0; 803) 202 ± 202
M7b4* 5 2.6 1 20,467 (5,038; 35,896) 17,586 ± 6,764 Total 25 0.84 0.47 15,828 (0; 33,125) 16,951 ± 9,485
       Ivatan 1 NA NA NA NA
M7c3 22 1.36 0.27 10,706 (6,540; 14,872) 9,199 ± 1,826 Total 138 1.38 0.39 25,914 (11,638; 40,190) 27,848 ± 7,870
       Yami 9 0.1 0.1 1,886 (0; 5,584) 2,018 ± 2,018
M7c3c2* 2 2 1.41 15,744 (0; 37,499) 13,528 ± 9,537 Total 22 0.64 0.59 11,991 (0; 33,883) 12,915 ± 11,906
       Ivatan 1 NA NA NA NA
N9a10* 5 2.2 1.18 17,318 (0; 35,525) 14,880 ± 7,981 Total 17 0.24 0.19 4,436 (0; 11,299) 4,843 ± 3,834
       Ivatan 3 NA NA NA NA
  1. * Haplogroups not described in van Oven 2009: F1a1d, M7b4, and N9a10 (see text).
  2. # Molecular dating of mtDNA sequences for coding region synonymous mutations was obtained using a rate of one synonymous mutations per 7,884 years [53] or per 6,764 years [51].
  3. $ Molecular dating of mtDNA HVS-1 sequences (n > = 5) was obtained using a rate of one transition per 19,171 years when Rho method was applied according to [53], or per 20,180 years according to [52, 64].
  4. NA: Not applicable.
  5. Note: Inferences made from such dates warrant caution as they have considerable uncertainty and may be inaccurate [33].
  6. &All lineages were identical.
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