Concordance between Yami NRY phylogenetic diversity (Y-SNP and Y-STR) and the genealogy survey of Wei and Liu (1962). Phylogenic tree of Y-SNP and Y-STR diversity. Each leaves (or one individual) represent a nuclear family. According to Wei and Liu conclusions (1962) , extended paternal families (left numbers in diagram C) and their ancestral families (Village + Roman numerals in diagram B) are not shared between villages. Quantitative visualization of the Wei and Liu relationship with NRY phylogenetic is done using the GenGIS program . Each axis of categories on the left of diagrams A, B or C (i.e. Villages, Ancestral or extended families) have been ranked to introspect the Wei and Liu statement and represent the least number of crossings of correlation lines between the left axis and the leaves of the NRY Phylogram. The fit of each ordered genetic lay out to the genealogy of Wei and Liu was tested using a Monte Carlo permutation test on the leaf nodes. The fraction of crossings lesser than those shown in the figure (A = 14, B = 11 and C = 8) represent the P values. The P values were all < 0.01  (see also Additional file 4) and indicate that concordance between the NRY phylogeny and the Wei and Liu paternal genealogy is not random. A - Villages of paternal origin. The spindles from villages represent the NRY distribution throughout Orchid Island. B - Ancestral paternal families' correspondences to the NRY phylogeny. Crossing correlation lines are all restricted to the Iraralai village indicating a few discrepancies between NRY Phylogeny and the Wei and Liu genealogy. C - Extended paternal families. Families 43 to 49 belong to the Iraralai village. Three families, 44, 45 and 47 have members belonging to different NRY subclades. Reiterating B, this pattern indicates erroneous Wei and Liu survey information or departure from a patrilocal way of life among Iraralai families but does not destroy the "one family-one village" relationship observed by Wei and Liu among Yami.